Jukskei was originally a game played by the Voortrekkers. They would place a peg upright in the ground and try to hit this target from a distance with their skeis, skittle-shaped pegs used in the ox yoke. The modern version involves two teams of four players each playing with two skeis. The pegs are placed in two sandpits 14m apart. The purpose is to hit the peg or get the skeis as close as possible and to reach a score of 23.
2 The play area
3 Team composition and roles
3.1 Game description
3.3 Rules and scoring
3.4 Penalties of Infringements
Skeets may be made from wood, rubber, composite or synthetic materials. Skeets must be between 300mm and 460mm in length, and their diameter may not exceed 75mm. A skeet may not weigh more than 1.8kg (for seniors) or less than 1.1kg (for juniors).
Two straight, round stakes are made of wood or synthetic materials and should be 510mm long, and 25mm to 30mm thick. One end of the stake must be tapered to a sharp point, which is planted 50mm deep into the sand. A screw, nail or similar object can be fixed to either side of the pitch with a string secured permanently to the one side. The other end of the string may bear a hook or a ring which can be hooked over the opposite screw or nail.
A knot or other marking can indicate the exact centre of the cross-string. The stake is positioned exactly behind the knot or marking when the string is strung tightly across the pitch.
The stake should be positioned in the pitch at a distance of at least 1.8m from the front, and 1.2m from each of the other three sides.
- A calliper is required for measuring purposes.
- A rake is required to smooth and level the sand after a round of play.
- A score-sheet is used to record the results or score.
- A round-robin or knock-out schedule applies.
The play area
- The pitch
- Different casting distances are allocated to boys / men and girls / women.
Team composition and roles
A team consists of four players, one of whom is the leader. The leader determines the order in which the team members cast.
If three people play against a team of four, then the leader of the team consisting of only three players indicates during each round when the absent player would have cast. The round then continues as though the absent player had already cast.
If a team begins a match with only three players, the absent player may join the team at any time during the match, provided this is done at the beginning of a round.
A team may be accompanied by a reserve, provided it is clear who the reserve player is, since he or she is the only player that will be allowed to take the place of a member of the team concerned. No reserve player may join the team after a match has started, unless one of the team members has been injured, has taken ill or is otherwise unfit to continue playing.
Should fewer than three team members arrive, the match cannot be played, and the team concerned forfeits their points.
The players must stand the same distance from the stake at both ends.
Each player gets two skeets to cast.Position of playersThe two teams’ players take up their positions behind the pitching line for their group.
Players stand behind the pitching lines of Pin One when casting skeets to Pin Two. In the next round, they reverse the direction. At both ends, the players must stand the same distance away from the stake.
Players may not stand more than 1.8m to the right or left of a point directly behind the stake when they cast.
When casting a skeet, the player may step forward up to the pitching line, but may not step on or over the pitching line before the skeet is released from the hand.PlayThe skeet is gripped by the handle and the player casts it underhand past the leg, using a forward swinging motion of the arm. A skeet has been cast as soon as it leaves the hand of a player. Players can cast the skeet by rotating it either vertically or horizontally.Unless decided otherwise by the team leaders, the team to throw first is determined as follows:
Before play commences, the two team leaders (or a player from each team designated by the leader) throw a skeet over the fixed distance towards the stake.
The two players, one from each team cast onto a clear pitch. The distance of the first player’s skeet is measured. The skeet is then removed and the pitch restored, after which the player from the other team casts his / her skeet and the distance is measured. If there is a tie, the players cast again.
The team whose skeet is closer to the stake can decide which team casts first.
The players from the two teams cast their two skeets in the following order.
The first player from the team casting first casts his or her two skeets, followed by the first player from the other team. Then, it is the turn of the second player from the first team, the second player from the other team, and so on.
The team leader has the right to alter the order in which his or her players cast their skeets. This may be done at any stage during the game.
Players must cast both skeets, unless a set (23 points) is scored after the first cast, in which case the opposing team must try to cancel the points of that casting turn in the set.
If a team has scored a set and a player from the team still has one skeet left to cast, then the leader of that team must decide whether the remaining skeet is to be cast or the cast forfeited. This must be done before the team’s other skeets are cast or forfeited.
Should a player cast out of turn, then he or she must finish casting and continue play in the normal order, provided this does not happen at the beginning of a round.
If the first player casts out of turn, then the skeets are returned to him or her, and no points are awarded. As soon as the first player from the opposing team has cast his or her first skeet, then the round is regarded as having commenced.
If a set is scored during a casting turn, then players of the opposing team must keep casting until they cancel out the first team’s points. The captain of the scoring team may decide that his or her team will cast skeets, but only after the opposing team has cast both skeets.
The team whose skeet lies nearest to the stake casts first during the next round.
If no lies (1 point) or falls (3 points) are scored during a round, then the team that cast first in the previous round casts first again.
If no skeets lie close enough (more than 440mm to 460mm) to the stake to score, but one of the teams has scored one or more falls (3 points), then that team casts first in the next round.
If a set (23 points) is scored, then the leader of the scoring team has the right to determine the casting sequence for the following round.
If there is a tie for a set, then the first team to lie closest to the stake casts first in the next round. If a team scores more than 23 points, it bursts, and should then start from scratch in the next round. A team that has burst may not cast first in the next round, unless that team has scored a lie.
A player may change skeets at any time during the match, provided he or she is ready to play when it is his / her turn.
A round is completed when all players have cast or forfeited their skeets and the score has been recorded or a team has scored a set and the opposing team has no more skeets to cast.
Rules and scoring
A calliper is required for measuring. Only the area within a radius of 440mm to 400mm from the stake is considered for measuring purposes, and this section should therefore be clearly marked.
The distance between the skeet and the stake is measured from any part of the stake protruding above the surface of the sand to the nearest point or part of the skeet, either above or under the sand. For measuring purposes, skeets may be uncovered temporarily to determine their nearest point.
If a skeet is broken while in play, then the distance between the stake and the largest part of the broken skeet is measured.
The scores are recorded by team leaders after all 16 skeets have been either cast or forfeited. Leaders should check and confirm each other’s scores.Scoring a fall (3 points)
If a stake is knocked down by a skeet, then 3 points are awarded to the team whose player has hit the stake. This is known as a fall.
A fall is also scored if the stake falls over as a result of the shock caused by a falling skeet, or is knocked down by another skeet that shifted because of the throw. (For the purposes of a fall, both ends of the stake must be out of the sand.)
If the stake is hit but does not fall over because it is supported by a skeet, then the referee or team leader may carefully remove the skeet(s) concerned. If the stake does fall over, then the team hitting the stake is awarded 3 points. However:
If a skeet is removed to determine whether the stake will fall over, that skeet must be repositioned (restored) as close as possible to its original position.
No sand may be used to support a skeet; if the skeet rolls, then it should be allowed to do so.
If a skeet belonging to a player from Team A is pushed against the stake by a skeet cast by a member from Team B and the stake falls over, then this counts as a fall (3 points) for Team B. The opposite also applies.
If a player’s skeet hits the stake, but the stake remains standing at an angle, the stake must be returned to its original position before the next skeet is cast.
If both Team A and Team B score six falls, then the falls cancel one another out, and no points are recorded. In such cases, only the lies count, i.e. the skeet(s) lying nearest to the stake. Every fall of the stake, except those cancelled out by the opposing team, counts 3 points.
Scoring a lie (1 point)Only skeets lying within a radius of 460mm of the stake are taken into account for scoring purposes. Each skeet in this area counts 1 point, subject to the following conditions:
Only one team can score points with close lies in a round, i.e. only the skeet of the team lying nearest to the stake will count.
If Team A’s nearest skeet lies at exactly the same distance from the stake as the nearest skeet of Team B, then the skeets cancel out not only one another, but all the other skeets as well, and neither team scores any points with a close lie.
If the stake is hit and the skeet comes to rest in the place where the stake should stand, then that skeet should be shifted in the direction requiring the least shifting (not only to the sides, but also forwards and backwards). If another skeet lies in such a position as to prevent the moving of the skeet to make room for the stake, then both skeets should be moved.
A set (‘skof’)A set (or ‘skof’) comprises 23 points. The team that has scored 23 points at the end of the round wins the set. The winning team will be awarded 5 points. If both teams score a set during the same round, then each is awarded half the number of points (2.5 points). This does not, however, mean that casting is to cease as soon as both teams have scored a set during the same round. The teams should cast their remaining skeet(s) or, if they choose not to cast, may forfeit the skeet(s).
The set is shared only once all 16 skeets have been cast or forfeited. A skeet is forfeited when the team leader informs the opposing team that a skeet is forfeited.
The leader is obliged to name the player who is forfeiting his or her skeet(s). The decision to forfeit a skeet cannot be changed. A team leader may not decide that the skeets of more than one player should be forfeited simultaneously.
If a player scores a set for both his or her own team and the opposing team with his or her first skeet, then that player may cast the second skeet or may demand that the next player from the opposing team must cast before he or she casts again. i.e. He or she will be allowed to hold back one skeet.
If, however, a player scores the set with the second skeet, then a player from the opposing team may cast or forfeit his or her skeets before a player from the team concerned casts again.Burst regulationsIf a team scores more than 23 points, then it ‘bursts’, and should then start from scratch in the next round. If a team bursts, the game proceeds as usual.A winThe team that scores three sets first wins the match. One ‘set’ or ‘skof’ counts for 5 points.DurationA game should not last longer than 75 minutes. It can be adapted to a shorter period (minimum 10 minutes). The team that is leading when the time is up is the winner.
If a match is stopped due to rain, then unplayed sets are divided equally between the two teams. Sets in progress are scored according to the score at the end of the last round.
The team leading the last round gets 3 points of the set and the opposing team gets 2 points. The unplayed sets are divided equally between the two teams, e.g. Team A scores 1 set and leads 18-13 in the second set.
Penalties of Infringements
A player may not step on or over the pitching-line before the skeet has left his or her hand. In the event of an infringement, the referee decides whether or not the skeet should be removed, and whether or not the points scored by such skeet should count. If the skeet is removed, no points are scored, and the pitch should be restored to the condition it was in before the skeet was cast.
When casting, players may not stand more than 1,8m to the left or right of a point directly behind the stake.
Should a player influence the normal course of the game to the disadvantage of the opposing team, penalty points can be awarded against the infringing team.
If a team arrives late, then the match will not be played and the match is awarded to the team arriving on time. (Unions may, however, make their own rules regarding latecomers.)
If the referee instructs players to continue after a delay, but one of the teams refuses to cast, then that team forfeits the set.
A player whose skeets do not comply with the regulations, is given a warning by the referee. Should that player use those skeets again, he or she may be banned from the game.